The independence of the country’s media is threatened, uniquely in Europe, by the fact that the prime minister, Sylvio Berlusconi, owns the three main privately-owned TV stations, through the broadcasting company Mediaset, and indirectly controls the three RAI state-owned TV stations. Six journalists were threatened in 2005 after they investigated corruption in the Genoa football team. The right to privacy of journalistic sources, guaranteed in article 10 of the European Convention on Human Rights, was once more violated by a search of the offices of the daily paper Corriere della Sera in May.
QUI L'INDIRIZZO http://www.rsf.org/article.php3?id_article=17379
Riporto per i miei amici fascisti-forzisti anche la relazione annuale del 2005:
Italy - 2005 Annual report
The conflict between prime minister Berlusconi’s business and political interests remains a special case in Europe. But in 2004, the judiciary was the source of most attacks on press freedom, imposing prison sentences on journalists and increasingly challenging the privacy of sources.
The conflict of interest surrounding prime minister and media mogul Silvio Berlusconi continues to threaten the media’s independence. The government has tried to give the impression it wants to resolve the conflict, but Berlusconi, who owns three nationwide TV networks and country’s biggest press and publishing group, pushed the "Gasparri Law" through parliament on 29 April 2004 reforming broadcasting but protecting his private interests.
It allows multiple media ownership and changes anti-monopoly rules and the make-up of the board of the state-owned TV network RAI, all measures favouring the prime minister’s Mediaset group. Another flagrant example of conflict of interest was a 28 January vote by the senate exempting his terrestrial TV station Retequattro from having to become a satellite station before 31 December 2004 as the Constitutional Court had demanded.
Berlusconi’s direct interference in media operations, such as his blacklisting of state media journalists who criticised him, was less marked during the year however. Instead it was the courts who led attacks on press freedom.
VI BASTA? DEVO ANDARE A PRENDERE ANCHE LA RELAZIONE DEL 2004!??
MA SI DAI.
Italy - 2004 Annual report
Silvio Berlusconi’s job of prime minister gave him enormous influence over the country’s state-run broadcasting corporation RAI through its governing board. He also owned one of the country’s biggest media and publishing groups, Mondadori, as well as Mediaset, which operated three nationwide TV stations. This conflict of interests continued to alarm the Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE), the parliamentary assembly of the Council of Europe and the European Parliament.
Berlusconi’s attacks on the media in 2003 were not as harsh as in the previous year, when journalists were sacked for criticising the government, which also interfered in the running of RAI in violation of the national constitution. But the prime minister’s behaviour did nothing to ease the structural and identity crisis at RAI.
Unrest among journalists grew further when two bills to protect Berlusconi were submitted to parliament. One of them, to supposedly resolve his conflict of interests, offered no real solution since it allowed him to remain owner of his media empire as long as he handed over day-to-day management to someone else.
In a surprise move, President Carlo Azeglio Ciampi refused on 15 December to sign into law the other measure, the "Gasparri" bill, approved by parliament on 2 December. He asked both chambers to reconsider it because it contained unconstitutional clauses.
This bill, officially to pave the way for digital terrestrial TV, would have lifted the ban on one person owning more than two nationwide TV stations, meaning Berlusconi could keep his three, Italia 1, Canale 5 and Retequattro. The constitutional court had ruled on 20 November 2002, that Retequattro had to become a satellite station on 1 January 2004 so as to comply with the law on competition.
The bill would allow the owners of more than two TV stations to acquire daily newspapers from 1 January 2009. Newspapers were also permitted to buy TV stations, but in practice their weak finances would make this unlikely.
The Gasparri bill also proposed greatly broadening the base for calculating the 20 percent of advertising revenue that media owners were allowed to keep, to include income not just from TV ads, but from publishing, films and the written press as well. RAI and Mediaset collect between them 93 percent of all TV advertising revenue (63 percent going to Mediaset).
The bill provided for gradual part-privatisation of RAI and a change in the make-up of its board. Privatisation would begin on 31 January 2004 but shareholders could not own more than 1 percent of its total stock, meaning the economy ministry would keep control of it. The board would be enlarged from five members appointed by the presidents of both houses of parliament to nine - seven named by parliament’s watchdog commission and two by the ministry.
Berlusconi’s response to the president’s refusal was to issue a decree on 23 December giving Retequattro at least four more months (until 30 April 2004) to go satellite and so avoid losing a large chunk of its share value. The national telecommunications authority would then rule on the case again.
The courts obstructed the work of journalists in 2003 and undermined the protection of sources by prosecuting them and raiding their offices, especially for alleged violations of the rules of legal confidentiality. The year also saw a growing number of physical attacks on journalists investigating organised crime and attempts to intimidate them.
VEDIAMO ANCHE QUELLA DEL 2003? NO DAI...AI FORZISTI NON BASTA NEANCHE QUESTA?
Italy - Annual Report 2003
Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi effectively controls the material seen by 90 per cent of TV viewers in Italy. Through his ruling centre-right coalition government, he hold sway over the state TV network RAI, which is headed by a pro-government management. He also controls the privately-owned Mediaset group, which runs three other major TV networks, and is a shareholder in one of the country’s main press and publishing groups, Mondadori.
In May 2001, he promised to resolve the conflict of interest between controlling Mediaset and being head of the government. But the bill tackling this, adopted by parliament on 28 February 2002, simply set up a monitoring body to see that government officials did not take decisions that favoured their business interests. The new law allows Berlusconi to keep his media holdings as long as he has no direct responsibility. No punishment is provided for violation of this rule.
The Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) says such a direct link between the news media and the government is a threat to democracy in Italy. The OSCE press freedom representative, Freimut Duve, says Italy is a bad example to other countries that do not respect the separation of the media from the state.
RAI went through a grave crisis at the end of the year, when three of its five board members resigned, led on 20 November by the two centre-left opposition representatives, Luigi Zanda and Carmine Donzelli, after a serious disagreement with board chairman Antonio Baldassarre. They were followed on 27 November by Marco Stadernini, a centrist.
All three said the network was not respecting news diversity. The board, which represents the main political spectrum, is appointed by the presidents of the chamber of deputies and the senate. A strike call by some trade unions at RAI was joined on 20December by the Italian National Press Federation (FNSI), thus spreading to the entire media.
Numerous attacks on press freedom occurred during the year, especially the censorship of five TV programmes and the increasing number of searches of newspaper offices and journalists’ homes on the pretext of fighting terrorism. Courts also contravened United Nations standards by sentencing two journalists to prison for media offences.
E COME SCORDARE QUESTO FATTO: At a press conference in Sofia (Bulgaria) on 19 April, Prime Minister Berlusconi fiercely denounced three RAI journalists who had criticised his government and hinted they should be dismissed. He said they way they were using a public TV network "funded by all taxpayers" was "criminal." He criticised the programme "Sciuscià" of Michele Santoro and "Il Fatto" of Enzo Biagi. The two programmes were dropped in June. The OSCE asked Berlusconi on 27 June to justify these decisions. Santoro was suspended between 15 and 18 October for disciplinary reasons.
| inviato da
il 15/11/2006 alle 23:6 | |